PISA Research

Our mission is to build and protect global, privacy-preserving, permissionless and off-chain smart contracts.

Explore Us

Research Impact

Off-chain SoK (2019)

A systemization of knowledge for off-chain protocols. It explores channels, routing, commit chains, privacy and security.

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PISA (2018)

We proposed the first accountable third party watching service (PISA) that can be deployed on Ethereum without any hard-fork.

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Case Study (2018)

We have performed and published the first empirical case study to evaluate state channels as a scaling solution for cryptocurrencies.

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Sprites Channel (2017)

We are among the first team to propose how to concretely construct (and peer-reviewed) off-chain state channels with Sprites and Kitsune.

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E-Cash Survey (2016)

Summarises the field of micropayment protocols including classical e-cash protocols, real-world products and cryptocurrencies.

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Channel Survey (2016)

First survey to explore the concept of channel-based networks based on chat room conversations, mailing lists, private conversations, etc.

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Watch & Protect

Our focus is building an accountable watching service, PISA, to support off-chain protocols in Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Off-chain Protocols

Scales the network by simply reducing its load. Transact locally instead of the global network, while retaining similar security guarantees.

Third-Party Watchers

Off-chain protocols assume users are always online. We will alleviate this assumption by watching off-chain protocols on behalf of users.

Our Team


Dr Patrick McCorry

PhD in Cryptocurrencies and Security Engineering


Dr Sergi Delgado

PhD in Cryptocurrencies and Distributed Networking


Chris Buckland

8 years experience building production software


Dr Salvatore Ingala

PhD in Approximation Algorithms


Ethan Heilman (Arwen)

April 18, 2019

Channel outsourcing protocols such as PISA are a critical piece of infrastructure for blockchain layer two


Liam Horne (L4)

April 18, 2019

The team behind PISA is world-class; at Counterfactual we’re excited to be working with them to make take state channels to production


Lefteris Karapetsas (Raiden Network)

April 30, 2019

The PISA team has long-standing experience in the field of state channels and we at Raiden Network appreciate their excellent work. We are looking forward to continuing the collaboration in the future.

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